Stationary Order Form download order form
There are a quantity of Rugby tops with the RAOB logo or Coat of Arms available from the office, for further details please contact Charlie.
Also available, walking stick badges, ties (all colours), Polo shirts, lapel badges, GP Appeal badges
Clay Pipes are available direct from the office, please email your requirements to firstname.lastname@example.org, the pipes will be despatched as soon as possible after ordering, the cost will be added to the goods account of the province. No responsibility can be accepted for pipes broken in transit, all possible care will be taken when wrapping and despatching.
All the following books are available from Grove House, or as a complete set, to order one or more of the following books, email email@example.com
Gratefull Thanks to bro Michael Walker ROH for the work carried out on these books.
General Laws of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes
The curator to the R.A.O.B. Museum, has since his appointment undertaken an extensive examination of the documents, files, Minute Books and other non regalia items which have been donated to the Museum.
Amongst the papers that he inherited are a considerable number of documents, many handwritten in pencil, some over one hundred years old, which are now so old and worn that I fear their likelihood of surviving for much longer is in doubt.
These have been transcribed into computerised copy in an attempt to preserve them for future members of the Order, since they have an important story to tell in the origins of the Order.
Progressively these will be published as fundraisers for the Museum under the banner title of “The Museum Collection”.
This edition deals with the Royal Regenerator Lodge and the earliest set of Lodge rules known to us for the present.
They are from the personal handwritten notes of Brother Tommy Johnson who was to become Grand Primo in 1901, and was also the first member to be raised to the degree of Roll of Honour. That ceremony being performed by the Grand Lodge of England.
His Fourth Degree jewel is on display in the Museum in a case of jewels permanently loaned to the Museum by the Leicestershire Province
Minutes of the Proceedings of the Finance Committee, August 1895
This edition deals with the investigation set up by the Convention of 1895 to look into certain irregularities in the finances of Grand Lodge.
Culshaws Story of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes
This edition deals with the first official history of the Order undertaken in the early 1920’s by Brother William Culshaw of Sunderland.
William Culshaw can legitimately be described as the first R.A.O.B. Historian to fully research the early details leading to the formation of the Order, he was able to personally authenticate everything that he wrote from records in his personal possession at the time or fully accredited by his close friends and acquaintances. The original manuscript is currently preserved in the R.A.O.B. Museum, at Grove House.
Regretfully he was expelled from the Order in 1925 before his work could be published. Grand Lodge purchased the copyright of the book for fifty guineas (£52-50p). The deed of transfer of the copyright has been reproduced as an appendix to this book.
The book was officially published by Grand Lodge under the title “A Historical Review of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes, Grand Lodge of England” with Brother W. H. Rose quoted as the author, ably assisted by Brother O'Rourke, who was later to become the founding Editor of the Buffalo Quarterly Journal.
Such was the thoroughness of Culshaw’s research that it was used as the basis of the book “Origin and Development of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes” by Brother Mervyn W. Payne, (Grand Primo 1934) the first volume of which was published by Grand Lodge in 1953.
Our position remains today, exactly as it was at the beginning of the 20th Century. In the absence of any proof to the contrary, 1822 must be accepted as the birth of the Order. If at some future date someone finds information leading to our antecedents at an earlier date than 1822, I am sure that our leaders at that time will give such evidence all the due care and consideration it deserves
Claims and Fantasies Part One
This edition deals with a form of an Initiation Ceremony claimed by Brother J.P. Dowling to prove that the date of formation of the Order was before 1822. Dowling first published his thesis on the Order in the 1890’s after the split by the London Lodges to formulate the Banner or Section now known as the Grand Lodge of England Ltd.
This Ritual makes many references to “R.A.O.B. or Royal Antediluvian”. We know that the title “Loyal/Royal” was added to our title following the Seditious and Riotous Assemblies Act of the 1870’s that is to say eighty years after the date of this Ritual.
Brother Dowling, undertook considerable research on the subject of the Order but none of his papers appeared to have survived the passage of time. Photographic copies of photographic copies of photographic copies of some appear with limited regularity. Much of his work was unsubstantiated, and was later discredited by his own Banner.
Non-the-less his thesis establishes with ease the manner with which an unsubstantiated story can easily be accepted as “historical fact”. The Buffalo making ceremony described here and purported to be 1790 is almost word for word similar to that used by another philanthropic Order of the same period.
In all his writings, Dowling never gave an established date for the formation of the Order, but attempted to draw comparisons with the mysteries of Bull worship from ancient Egypt and thereby left his readers to draw their own conclusions. Would any modern historian be allowed to get away with that?
As previously stated, the position of Grand Lodge of England remains unchanged from that which Culshaw in the 19th century, or Rose, and Payne in the 20th century declared. If anyone can produce tangible proof together with the supporting evidence that the Order developed any earlier than 1822, it will be given due consideration and the widest publicity.
All known Sections of the Order have accepted that 1822 is the most probable date of the birth of the R.A.O.B. movement at the Harp Tavern, Drury Lane.
Minutes of the First Meeting of the Grand Primo Lodge of England
This edition deals with the first meeting of the Grand Primo Lodge of England held on the 18th May, 1822. Together with the first consolidated Rules of the new Grand Primo G.L.E as presented in 1866.
In addition we include the General Rules of the Loyal Order of Antediluvian Buffaloes as issued by the Shakespeare Lodge No.1 Grand Mother Lodge in Manchester of 1872.
Changi Prisoner of War Lodge No.1
The R.A.O.B. G.L.E. Museum Curator in Harrogate, has discovered a lot of manuscripts and other documents. These included some further documentation on the Changi POW No.1 Lodge, which had been donated to the museum. Amongst these documents is an original Certificate of Brother T. Armstrong K.O.M. who in the 1950’s was a Captain in the R.A.M.C., together with letters attempting to find him to return it to him, also other interesting letters.
On contacting the author of the original publication, he readily agreed to the re-publication of it incorporating all the new information because as stated “it is part of Buffalo history that should not be forgotten”.
Abridged History of Grove House
The building currently known as Grove House, situated on Skipton Road Harrogate, dates from three identifiable periods, the earliest of which is 1752/4 and can be seen in the “square block” at the centre of the building as viewed from the outside. From the inside, at ground floor level, the four stone arches mark its boundary. The West wing with its grand staircase and window, was the first extension, was completed in 1868 together with stables and the East wing with tower dates from 1899.
The premises were originally built at the time when Harrogate was developing as a spa town because of the health giving properties of the water found in a large number of springs and wells. Grove House was built as a small hostelry or Guest House and was originally called “The World’s End.” There is some evidence to show that for a while it served as a staging post for passengers and mail from London to York.
Ceremony and Chorus
So many books have been written on this interesting subject, all of them without any proof, and mainly on supposition, that now the original records have been traced, something really reliable and interesting to all Brothers in all sections of the Order will, we feel sure, be appreciated, and will stop, once and for all, the printing of mythical stories as to our origin, which are very misleading and calculated to be very derogatory to the best interests of Buffaloism.
The following facts contained herein have been extracted from a publication in the British Museum by the Authors, who will be pleased to give any Brother full details of how to see the original publication, should he be in any doubt as to any of the facts stated herein. They are all culled from Pierce Egan’s book, the authenticity of which cannot be doubted, and published many years ago by Messrs. Chatto and Windus, to whom we are indebted for permission to reproduce, and to this eminent firm of Publishers we tender our thanks.
World War One Ambulances
When the 1914/18 war descended upon us I doubt if Grand Lodge can be blamed for failing to take an all out National view of what the Order might accomplish if the whole of its efforts were co-ordinated but as it was the delegates adopted a middle course which, all things considered, was very effective in many respects.
It is clear from the sequence of business in October 31st, 1914, the first meeting of Grand Lodge after the declaration of war on August 4th, 1914, that the full implications, as far as it might affect our Order had not really been appreciated.
Our principal effort or perhaps it might be more accurate to say our most spectacular effort was in the provision of ambulance cars.
Whether by skilful selection or by sheer good fortune Bro. John Wilson had selected one of the few things about which no one was in doubt; a proposal that touched as with a magic wand a basic and fundamental part of our faith; a faith that lived, survived and prospered even in our worst moments of vanity or self seeking or personal ambitions or wrangling or jockeying for position, “to defend the weak and to render assistance to those of the brotherhood in difficulty or need” and in those days for all banners and creeds an ambulance was the living and visual embodiment of these ideals and politics and prejudices and preferences went tumbling down before a realisation of the need for brotherhood to save a nation.
The report given at the January 1915 meeting of Grand Lodge would seem to indicate that, as usual with our members, the scheme was slow in gathering momentum for only 203 subscriptions had been received and 1,000 lodges had not shown an interest. In spite of this and with the help of the Disaster Fund an ambulance had been purchased and presented to the War office and we had a balance of £90 toward the second vehicle.
Bro. George Pearce of Cheltenham was the driver of this first car and as a mark of recognition he had been given the rank of Sergeant.
The Nine Lectures
The contents of this book are a copy of documents given to me by members of the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Lodge of England Limited.
Although the contents purport to be steeped in history there seems to be a distinct resemblance to another organisation which has its roots firmly established well before ours and whose ceremonies can be seen to be closely allied to our own.
The subject matter is a very in depth look into the mystery surrounding our Order and can be very interesting to the historical student or very boring to those who like a bit of light reading.
Dowling’s Origin of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes
The contents of this book are a true copy of an original
hard backed book loaned to me by a member and dear friend of the Grand Lodge of England.
I have copied these pages as faithfully as I can and corrected any spelling mistakes as and when they occurred. The phrases used are exactly as printed as are the Latin quotes.
Most of the long words have no meaning in the English dictionary and one must assume that they are a figment of Dowling’s very enthusiastic, if overactive, imagination.
The subject matter is a very in depth look into the mystery surrounding our Order and the authors view of how the R.A.O.B. originated in 1776. What Dowling perceives as the start of the R.A.O.B. is still not supported by any documentary evidence, perhaps a reference to Mervyn Payne’s book “The Origin and Development of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes” should be taken and his remarks about the writings of J. P. Dowling.
In this particular work he remembers dates with a very clear mind yet he says he cannot remember the date of his own initiation or “Making”.
Unfortunately to fully understand these works one must refer to three other publications by the same author, “The Nine Lectures on the History and Mystery of Buffaloism”, “Is the Order Antediluvian” and “The Old Ritual” which can be obtained from the same source as this series
The Royal Lights
This book in the Museum Collection series needs very little introduction as it is published in answer to the many queries received from members regarding the Royal Lights and is reproduced almost exactly as the original booklet.
The Mystic Ring
This publication is the latest in the series of the Museum Collections and is a copy of the original booklet I have in my rather large collection of RAOB history.
The original booklet has drawings that are old and faded so I have re-drawn the images and re-arranged the text to make it more readable.
To fully understand this work, other books in the series must be read in conjunction with this booklet including the “Royal Lights”.
Although the author is Bro. William Edmonds he has all the characteristics of that great writer Bro. J. P. Dowling who’s theories on the origins of Buffaloism are legendary and steeped in Egypt’s history. Much of this book is based on Edmond’s version of Sun Worship, the God of which was Shamash.
The “winged sun-disk” is a symbol originating in Assyria and Egypt and has been used by a variety of groups such as Freemasonry, Spiritists, Theosophy and the Rosicrucians. This symbol has been called by numerous names such as the winged globe, winged-solar-disk, sun’s disc, etc. This symbol was placed on numerous Bible Student material including editions of Russell’s Studies in the Scriptures from about 1911 to 1920. Under Rutherford’s leadership this symbol was eliminated from JW literature as it was viewed as being like the Pyramid; it was Satanic, they said.
But as the title explains, this is about symbolism, which the teachings of Dowling, Edmonds and a few other writers were very proficient in.
The Old Ritual
This edition of the Museum Collections is an updated version of the Museum Collection number four dealing with the Initiation Ceremony claimed to be used in 1790 by the R.A.O.B. League of Light and written much earlier by George Cooper Murray. In it are references to the Hexalpha Board and the positioning of the Royal Lights.
The Lecture or Initiation Ceremony of the early era, though long and complicated was not printed, very rarely was it committed to writing, it was memorized and so passed from one to another until this version came on the scene.
Thus it came to pass that while the main features of the Ceremony remained practically identical, the procedure when considered in detail was far from uniform, it varied considerably, for the actors could and did “gag” unmercifully when given the opportunity.
The ceremony itself was theatrical and terrifying, and of the type designed to try the nerves of and temper of a candidate to the utmost: he was baited and spoofed unmercifully, much rough horseplay being indulged in of course, care was taken that he came to no actual hurt, but for about a quarter of an hour and even longer, he had anything but a comfortable time. Suggestions of “Bloodletting” and “Burning” would not tend to give assurance to a nervous individual, “as can be seen from the previous ceremony”.
Our position remains today, exactly as it was at the beginning of the 20th Century. In the absence of any proof to the contrary, 1822 must be accepted as the birth of the Order. If at some future date someone finds information leading to our antecedents at an earlier date than 1822, I am sure that our leaders at that time will give such evidence all the due care and consideration it deserves.
Some very vague and conflicting views are held. The title takes us back to a very early but improbable date in the worlds history, while certain “historical” statements made in its “Lecture” would, if accepted as literal facts, show it to have existed from a very ancient date indeed and thus give justification for the use of the phrase that its “Origins were lost in the mists of antiquity”.
League of Light
It is not that I do not have any faith in the teachings of those whose historical research go back some thousands of years, but it is the belief that there is still no documentary evidence of any section of the R.A.O.B. including the League of Light being alive and kicking before 1822.
Many authors and books delving into the past sometimes come up with various fantasies and fairy tales that purport to show that the Buffalo Order, that is the R.A.O.B., is some mystical occult organisation which pre dates even the birth of this very earth, but Dowling is a great believer in the ancient Egyptian philosophy and the Gods that were worshipped in that era. In particular Osiris and his sister Isis.
Whilst the historical virtues of those authors are not in question, it is the facts on which they base their assumptions with regard the R.A.O.B. that is.
Mervyn Payne in his book, The Origin and Development of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes, refers to making contact with every Public Library Authority in Britain with special reference to the pre 1822 period and coming up with a complete blank.
There is no doubt that Brother J. P. Dowling did a considerable amount of research into Bull Mysticism and Ancient Egyptian Rites and Occultism and to say he was a prolific writer would be an understatement and I have nothing but admiration for the power of his writing, but he had so much faith in his own conclusions that he was unable to accept the views of others.
The following is a quotation from Dowling’s Book “The Origin of the RAOB” and can be found in Museum Collection No.11.
“This school of instruction in the R.A.O.B., was started in the year 1902. Three brothers are responsible for that step in the year mentioned, viz., our late and much lamented Editor of Laurie’s Gems and Buffalo Star, Brother A. E. Laurene, of Leeds, R. H. Oldershaw, P.G.P., of Nottingham, well versed in R.A.O.B. esoterics, and the author of this work.
The title “League of Light” was suggested by Bro. R. H. Oldershaw, submitted by him, and agreed to be used. The title explains the objects of this movement, i.e., to diffuse the blessings of light and wisdom in the hitherto ignorance and custom darkened chambers of the Kosmic erected Temple of our Order”.
That the League of Light existed is not in question, I have in my possession several jewels to prove the same, but until someone shows me evidence of a connection with the R.A.O.B. prior to 1822 I will hold my views.
The York, Weston Super Mare
Whilst browsing through the RAOB GLE Website during the early days of it being placed on the internet I found that on the front page there were many articles and links regarding the Order and its past along with two pictures of our Convalescent Homes; (a) Grove House & (b) The York. Under the picture of Grove House was “Read the fascinating history of Grove House”. Under The York was nothing.
I realised that nowhere in the recent history of the RAOB GLE was there anything in writing relating to the York, so I set about researching this history, which turned out to be a fascinating adventure into past journals and documents that were in my possession along with photographs and drawings that were scrounged or borrowed, this effort was most rewarding and well worth the work involved.
I have tried, with the contents of this book to tell the story of the York Convalescent Home, Weston Super Mare, the beginnings as a Hotel, School, Nursing Home and Boarding House, it’s rather rough ride through the ages (well at least since 1962) and all the arguments for and against keeping or selling the same.
Many will remember Brother Mervyn Payne, who was a great ‘Anti York’ campaigner but who’s heart softened with age allowing him to finish the last years of his life as a permanent resident in ‘That Place’, the place he so hated when the Order bought it.
Tribute ought to be paid to the various Matrons and House Managers that put in so much hard work to make the place work, and to the many members who, through their various skills, repaired and kept the York going through sometimes very tenuous periods.
It has to be said though that at the end, Grand Lodge Management Committee identified damp problems over the whole footprint of the building which would have been very costly to repair, this along with other problems, added to the demise of the York.
Please be advised that the views expressed in this work are those of myself as author of this publication and in no way reflect the views of the R.A.O.B., G.L.E. or of its members.
The series of Seminars were started by a small team within the Grand Lodge Management Committee which blossomed to the involvement of the whole of the Management team along with the Grand Lodge Trustees, the Grand Treasurer, the Grand Secretary, the Grand Lodge Auditors and Grand Lodge Stockbrokers.
This book is produced to give some idea to the membership of the Order how the Seminars work and the script the speakers followed in their presentations to the membership.
The presentation teams at the outset of these Seminars, consisted of the whole of the Management Committee, the Grand Lodge Trustees the Grand Treasurer and the Grand Secretary, and as time went on it was found to be not financially viable to take in this whole team, the Seminars finished up with teams of just 5 who are to be congratulated on the way each Seminar was presented.
The object of this book in the series of Museum Collections is to bring to the attention of our membership the importance of the words “The Spirit of Buffaloism and Benevolence”.
It is particularly poignant that this edition was published just before the festive season is upon us, may it remind us the Spirit of true Buffaloism and Benevolence is a year long recipe and not just a one off time for giving.
Peter the Hermit
Few members of the Order know anything about the man who has come down through the centuries, to figure prominently in one of our ceremonies, under the style and title of ‘Peter the Hermit’, and fewer still will bother to find out any more. So we picture him as a ‘wild man of the desert’, or some old humbug living in a cave, and we wonder how on earth he managed to “Drive the nations of Christendom into the Saracenic Wars”, indeed, some amateur historians assure us that he did no such thing. Yet he was a man of considerable importance in his time, and the facts of his career were fully set down by 11th century writers, to be found by anyone who knows where to look for such information.
Two versions are contained within this book and both have a bearing on this very important character in our history.
This publication deals with the series of short lectures given by Brother Robert Humphrys, C.P. to Lodges in the Grand Council of Australia.
It is steeped in ancient Egyptian history, and one could be forgiven for thinking it was the work of that prolific writer J. P. Dowling, if it were not for the fact that the author has appended his name
This publication deals with another of the series of short lectures given by Brother Robert Humphrys, K.O.M. to Lodges in the Grand Council of Australia and deals with the art of speech making and the successful running of a Lodge whilst in the “Chair”.
This publication deals with the series of short lectures given by Brother W. G. Watson, K.O.M. to the members of the Ye Olde Mulberry Tree Lodge No.961 which started life in the Northumberland & North East Durham Province and then moved the Province of North Durham.
It is steeped in ancient Egyptian history, and is another example of the writings of those students of the occult such as Dowling and Humphrys and many other very prolific writers.
This publication deals with the lecture given by Brother G. Grills K.O.M., P.K.C., relating to the Hexalpha, publication date unknown.
It is another of those lectures that try to trace our history back to very ancient times and if the truth be known it has undertones of that other organisation which has similar objects as our own.
The Airship R101
This book in the series “Museum Collections” is a sectional view of the Airship ‘R 101’, the building of it and its fatal flight to India on Saturday 4th October 1930.
Although strictly speaking it has nothing to do with the history of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes, it is a fitting story and tribute to the 54 Officers, crew and passengers who died in the crash near Beauvias, France, of which at least 27 were members of the Order.
The Seal of the R.A.O.B., G.L.E.
The author has tried, with the contents of this book to give the reader a picture of how the seal of our Order originated and has changed and grown over the time the Order has been in existence, but with no written records to fall back on it has been a difficult journey but very rewarding.
The contents expressed in this book remain the views of the author of this publication and in no way reflect the views of the RAOB GLE, other Banners or any of its members.
Ceremonies of the Knights of the Golden Horn
This book in the Museum Collection Series is a copy of the Enrolment Ceremonies of Knights of the Golden Horn as used by that body in 1910. It has been copied word for word from a book that came into my possession during 1986.
Many of the passages in this ceremony appear to be taken from that other organisation which is similar but older than the RAOB, it goes to show that the beginnings of our Order has its starting date stemming from those actors who were disillusioned by restrictions placed upon them by their fellow members with regard to the stage hands and those that made up the company that put on the various plays in theatres throughout the country.
Changi & Unique Lodges
This book was intended to be a sequel to the Museum Collection number six “Changi P.O.W. Lodge No.1” as I had received a couple more items of interest from the Museum Curator since compiling that book, however the material received was not enough to fill even a few pages. Somewhere during the intervening years I joined the RAF Changi Association and found through their archives that Squadron Leader Henry Probert had written a fascinating history of Changi in its early years. So, the following first story is his account of the way the island of Singapore and especially Changi has developed over the years. This book finishes with an amazing story by Brother Barrie Shrimpton, Grand Lodge of Queensland, of a rather unique Lodge held in Japan. I must admit that when I heard of this Lodge my thoughts were of a lodge being formed and meeting surreptitiously during the Japanese occupation of the Far East during the last war as was the Changi P.O.W. Lodge No.1 and did not associate it with a lodge in Japan as a result of the Korean War, especially when you consider the fanatical Japanese had a racial hatred of any secret organisation. It is perhaps an example to us all that no matter where or when, if you can find enough members of the Order you will be able to open a lodge anywhere in the world.
The Opening of Grove House Orphanage
This book in the Museum Collection Series is a copy of the Souvenir book issued in 1926/27 to commemorate the opening of Grove House Orphanage.
The Order, that is the Grand Lodge of England, purchased the premises in 1926 for £10,000 to use as an orphanage, this was because of the prolonged arguments at Grand Lodge over the question of legal ownership of the R.A.O.B. Orphanage at Aldridge (near Walsall), these premises being paid for, but not owned by the Order.
This book in the series is a copy of the Aldridge Souvenir booklet loaned to me by a very good friend, in preparing this edition for publication I have tried to obtain the date of the first publication without success but it is thought to be in the late 1920’s.
It is a pictorial view of a wonderful building which was designed to last for a very long time, at the end though the land and the buildings came under a lot of fire at Grand Lodge because of the indeterminate ownership of the assets.
Grand Secretary’s Tour of India
This book in the series is a pictorial view of Brother Billy Rose’s Tour of India during 1927. The book was published early in 1928 (circa April) and is one of the last of his works.
Billy Rose’s appointment as Grand Secretary, gave him the opportunity which he sought, and he did not spare himself in the interests of the Order, which he was for ever trying to improve. Right from the time he was made Secretary until a few days before he died, he was at his desk from early until late – from 7.30 in the morning until midnight as a day’s work was the rule rather than the exception.
1928 was the last year that we saw Billy Rose for on Wednesday, 9th January 1929 by the death of Brother William Henry Rose, there passed away one of the greatest personalities which the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes under the Grand Lodge of England has ever known.
Souvenir of our New Orphanage
For many years now, this document has been shown to only a few. Those that have had a view of it, and indeed handled it would have been advised to handle it with care owing to its age and rarity.
This book is a pictorial story of Grove House as our new Orphanage, as opposed to that other book “The Opening of Grove House” which is portrayed in Museum Collection number 28.
Like many of the R.A.O.B. publications in the past, much of it has been destroyed or thrown away. The copy that is published in this series is a true copy of an original.
In this particular work by Bro. E. Graham Dunstan, the start of the R.A.O.B. is thrown wide open with his thoughts, he exposes some of the myths about the difference between the bull worshipers of ancient Egypt and the Buffalo Order. It has to be remembered though that this book was written in 1922 so some of his remarks may not apply to the current date.
Combined Sections R101 Memorial Service
Ordinarily I would not dream of updating the Museum Collection Book No.24 as the whole story of the R101 was recounted in that publication but as this was such an historical milestone in the annals of Buffaloism and generated so much interest, I thought it warranted another book, and I now publish for the interest of the members of the Order what is my version of the events that took place on Sunday 13th October 2013.
It is an attempt to show the Order what can be done for the furtherance of Buffaloism when the minds of members are set in trying to bring together a vast number of members of different banners at a public function to show to the world that the face of Buffaloism is one huge philanthropical society working for the good of mankind.